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ó , , ( , per definitionem) , . 3 , , . , 1950 1960 . , 1970 , 75. , ࢓76. 3 , , , , .

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, , (Project on Rhetoric of Inquiry [POROI]) 198090 .; . . [Donald N. McCloskey, John S. Nelson]. : , , , , , ђ ϳ, [Lori Brandt, Kevin Burnett, Ann Gallagher, Carey Goodman, Addison Hoe, Susan Peabody, Trent Watts and Harwell Wells]. ³. , ,  , ; , ; , ; ; , ; ; , POROI N.E.H. . ó, , , , , [David Hiley, Thomas Haskell, Dorothy Ross, Georg Iggers, Patrick Hutton, Jeffrey Cox and Shelton Stromquist]. .

̳

 

 

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2 ., ., History the Great CatchAll: Barzun J., Graff H. F. The Modern Researcher. San Diego, 4/1985. . 813.

3 ˳: Lyotard J.F. The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge (1979). Trans. Geoff Bennington, Brian Massumi. Minneapolis, 1984. . XXIII. , , . ( , , ), , , , 糳 .

4 ., : Blanke H. W. Historiographiegeschichte als Historik. StuttgartBad Cannstatt, 1991 , 1750 ., 809 .

5 . : Bender T. Wholes and Parts: The Need for Synthesis in American History // Journal of American History. LXXIII (1986). . 110136; , [Nell Irvin Painter, Richard Wightman Fox and Roy Rosenzweig] : A Round Table: Synthesis in American History // Journal of American History. LXXIV (1987). . 10730. . : Geyer M., Jarausch K. H. The Future of the German Past: Transatlantic Reflections for the 1990s // Central European History. XXII (1989). . 229259 ( . 234247).

6 . : Novick P. That Noble Dream: The Objectivity Question and the American Historical Profession. Cambridge, 1988. . .: Megill A. (ed.). Rethinking Objectivity. Durham, NC, 1994, : Megill . Introduction: Four Senses of Objectivity // Ibid. C. 110.

7 , 쳓 [Jacob Burckhardt]. 볳 ( , 1860), , , , , ó (.: Burckhardt J. The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy. Trans. S. G. C. Middlemore. Harmondsworth, 1990. Part I. Introduction. C. 19).

8 .: Koselleck R. Die Entstehung des Kollektivsingulars // Otto Brunner, Werner Conze, Reinhart Koselleck, eds. Geschichtliche Grundbegriffe: Historisches Lexikon zur politischsozialen Sprache in Deutschland. Stuttgart, 1972. II. . 652. .: Koselleck. On the Disposability of History // Koselleck. Futures Past: On the Semantics of Historical Time. Trans. Keith Tribe. Cambridge, MA, 1985. C. 200202 (. . 28 ). ˸, die Geschichte 糭 . .: Lwith K. Mensch und Geschichte (1960) // Der Mensch inmitten der Geschichte: Philosophische Bilanz des 20. Jahrhunderts. Ed. Bernd Lutz. Stuttgart, 1990. C. 228.

9 Berkhofer R. F., Jr. The Challenge of Poetics to (Normal) Historical Practice // Paul Hernadi, ed. The Rhetoric of Interpretation and the Interpretation of Rhetoric. Durham, NC, 1989. C. 188189. , ? , , , , , , ; .: Kammen M. Historical Knowledge and Understanding // Selvages and Biases: The Fabric of History in American Culture. Ithaca, 1987. . 37.

10 Mink L. O. Narrative Form as a Cognitive Instrument // Historical Understanding. Ed. Brian Fay, Eugene O. Golob, Richard T. Vann. Ithaca, 1987. C. 194195.

11 Krieger L. Times Reasons: Philosophies of History Old and New. Chicago, 1989. C. XI passim. , 1960 1970 . (. 볭 . IXXII, 16), . . : Krieger L. Ranke: The Meaning of History. Chicago, 1977, , .

12 Krieger. Times Reasons C. 170.

13 .: Klempt A. Die Skularisierung der universalhistorischen Auffassung im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert: Zum Wandel des Geschichtsdenkens im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert. Gttingen, 1960. . : Universal History: A Troubled Tradition // Breisach E. Historiography: Ancient, Medieval, and Modern. Chicago, 1983. . 177185. , 糭 , .: Fukuyama F. The End of History and the Last Man. New York, 1992, 5, An Idea for a Universal History, . 5570.

14 Kant I. Idea for a Universal History from a Cosmopolitan Point of View (1784). Trans. Lewis White Beck // Kant. On History. Ed. Lewis White Beck. Indianapolis, 1963. C. 1126; Kant. An Old Question Raised Again: Is the Human Race Constantly Progressing (1795). Trans. Robert E. Anchor // Kant. On History. C. 137154. .: Fenves P. D. A Peculiar Fate: Metaphysics and WorldHistory in Kant. Ithaca, 1991.

15 Kant. Idea for a Universal History . 11, 2336.

16 Kant. Op. cit. . 25.

17 Kant. An Old Question Raised Again. . 141142.

18 Kant. Op. cit. . 143145. .: Krieger. The German Idea of Freedom. Boston, 1957. . 104105.

19 븢 .: Hegel G. W. F. The Philosophy of History. Trans. J. Sibree. New York, 1956. .: Hegel. Philosophy of Right. Trans. T. M. Knox. Oxford, 1952. . 216223. . : , , (Philosophy of History. . 457). 㳳 .: Dickey L. Hegel: Religion, Economics, and the Politics of Spirit, 17701807. Cambridge, 1987. . 149.

20 Schiller F. von. Was heisst und zu welchem Ende studiert man UniversalGeschichte? // Wolfgang Hardtwig, ed. ber das Studium der Geschichte. Munich, 1990. . 1836 (27).

21 Mink. Op. cit. (. 10). . 189.

22 . Herder J. G. A. L. Schlzers Vorstellung seiner UniversalHistorie // Herder. Smmtliche Werke. Ed. Bernhard Suphan. 33 vols. Berlin, 18771913. V. . 436, 438. . : Schlzer A. W. von. Vorstellung seiner UniversalHistorie. 2 vols. Gttingen, 177273. 11. Vorbericht. : Reill P. H. The German Enlightenment and the Rise of Historicism. Berkeley, 1975. . 47, 232233, . 59.

23 . 1848 . [Erster Teil der Weltgeschichte oder Geschichte der alten Welt], : Die Universalgeschichtsschreibung seit dem 16. Jahrhundert // Ranke L. von. Aus Werk und Nachlass. Ed. Walther Peter Fuchs and Theodor Schieder. 4 vols. Vienna, 1964175. IV: Vorlesungseinleitungen. Ed. Volker Dotterweich, Walther Peter Fuchs. . 208210.

24 . . : Krieger. Ranke ( . 11). . 103, 107, 112115, 124, 151152 passim. . Universalgeschichte, Historie : op. cit. (. 23). IV.

25 Ranke. [Die Notwendigkeit universalgeschichtlicher Betrachtung]. Ibid. IV. . 297298. Trans. Wilma A. Iggers, : The Role of the Particular and the General in the Study of Universal History (A Manuscript of the 1860s) // Ranke. The Theory and Practice of History. Ed. Georg G. Iggers, Konrad von Moltke. New York, 1983. . 5859.

26 Ranke L. Neuere Geschichte seit dem Anfang des 17. Jahrhunderts (28. Oktober 186710. Mrz 1868) // Op. cit. (. 23). IV. . 411. , [] , (Op. cit., . 11). . 103.)

27 Ranke L. Idee der Universalhistorie [ 183132] // Op. cit. (. 23). . 7475. . Wilma A. Iggers, : On the Character of Historical Science (A Manuscript of the 1830s) // Ranke L. Op. cit. (. 25). . 36.

28 (die Geschichte) , , XVIII .: 1780 . , , X Y; .: Koselleck, . Tribe. Op. cit. (. 8). . 200. , , IX ., , . , , ó. , .

29 Ranke L. Op. cit. (. 27). . 8283. Trans. Iggers. . 44.

30 a , 1820 . // Ranke, Leopold von. Das Briefwerk. Ed. Walther Peter Fuchs. Hamburg, 1949. . 18. . : Krieger. Op. cit. . 361.

31 Bury J. B. The Science of History // Fritz Stern, ed. The Varieties of History from Voltaire to the Present. New York, 2/1972. . 219.

32 Ibid. . 217. : Thomas Arnold. Lectures on Modern History. New York, 1874. . 46.

33 Krieger. Op. cit. (n. 11). . 242.

34 Bury. Op. cit. (n. 31). . 210.

35 . : , , , . Ranke. Englische Geschichte, vornehmlich im Siebzehnten Jahrhundert. Fnftes Buch. Einleitung // Smtliche Werke. 2 Gesammtausgabe. 54 vols. Leipzig, 18671890. XV. . 103.

36 Bury. Op. cit. (. 31). . 213, 216.

37 Ibid. . 219.

38 Droysen J. G. Outline of the Principles of History. Trans. E. Benjamin Andrews ( : Droysen. Grundriss der Historik. Rev. 3/1882). Boston, 1893. Sect. 81. . 47. , : Johann Gustav Droysen. Historik. Ed. Peter Leyh. 3 vols. Stuttgart, 1977 [ II III ]. (. 413488) Grundriss 1882 .

39 Droysen. Trans. Andrews. Appendix II. Art and Method. . 118. .: Droysen. Historik. . 69: , , , : , [Betrachtung] [ 1857 .].

40 White H. den. Droysens Historik: Historical Writing as a Bourgeois Science // The Content of the Form. Baltimore, London, 1987. . 99. . : Jrn Rsen. Begriffene Geschichte: Genesis und Begrndung der Geschichtstheorie J. G. Droysens. Paderborn, 1969. . 119.

41 (Trans. Andrews. Part I. . 6): 糭 , , ; , . , , , . . , , 1857 .: Historik. . 113114, 236238.

42 Ranke L. The Great Powers (1833). Trans. Hildegarde Hunt Von Laue // Ranke. Op. cit. (. 25). . 65101, 99101. , , , , (. 100). , IX . .: Krieger. Elements of Early Historicism: Experience, Theory, and History in Ranke // History and Theory. XIV (1975). . 114, 914. , , .: Iggers G. G. The German Conception of History: The National Tradition of Historical Thought from Herder to the Present. Rev. ed. Middletown, CT, 1983. . 106107. 곓 .: Michael J. MacLean, Johann Gustav Droysen and the Development of Historical Hermeneutics, History and Theory, XXI (1982), . 364365.

43 .: Droysen. Trans. Andrews. Op. cit. (n. 38). Sect. 73. . 44: , , .. , , , , . , , . ó.

44 (Novick, op. cit., . 6) , XX . ( ) . , , , : (1) , (. 361411). , , , , , . (2) , , , , (. 206207, 320321, 438, 457458, 465 passim). , , . (3) (. 577591 passim). , , . (4) , (. 1) , . , , .

45 : Wells H. G. The Outline of History, Being a Plain History of Life and Mankind. 2 vols. London, 1920; New York, 1921, (. 41, The Possible Unification of the World into One Community of Knowledge and Will, II, . 579589). , 1920 ., , .

46 Droysen. Trans. Andrews. Op. cit. (. 38). Sect. 15. . 15. . : Droysen. Vorlesung ber das Zeitalter der Freiheitskriege. 1/2. Gotha, 1886. . 4: , , . , : . [wsten Wellengang] , , . (Rsen, op. cit., . 40) (. . 116130).

47 .: Dilthey W. Introduction to the Human Sciences ( , 1883). Ed. Rudolf A. Makkreel and Frithjof Rodi. Trans. Michael Neville. Princeton, 1989. . 50; Oakeshott M. Experience and its Modes. Cambridge, 1933. . 9296; Oakeshott. The Activity of Being an Historian // Rationalism in Politics and other Essays. New York, 1962. . 137167.

48 Գ , . . : Mink L. O. Mind, History, and Dialectic: The Philosophy of R. G. Collingwood. Bloomington, 1969; Van Der Dussen W. J. History as a Science: The Philosophy of R. G. Collingwood. The Hague, 1981; Reassessing Collingwood // History and Theory. XXIX. 1990 [essays by James Patrick, James Connelly, W. Jan Van Der Dussen, Leon J. Goldstein, Michael A. Kissell and G. S. Couse].

49 ࢓ [Epilegomena] The Idea of History: Collingwood R. G. The Idea of History. Oxford, 1946. . 205334, 266302. (. 60, 236, 240).

50 .: Collingwood R. Op. cit. . 209, 236, 256.

51 Ibid. . 210, 231.

52 Collingwood R. An Autobiography. Oxford, 1939. . 77.

53 Ibid. . 59.

54 Ibid. . 79, 147167.

55 Ibid. . 167. . . , (. 151), .

56 ó, , , ; , , , . , , , [Quentin Skinner, J. G. A. Pocock] , ; .: Skinner Q. Meaning and Understanding in the History of Ideas // History and Theory. VIII. 1969. . 353. , , , , , , , ࢭ : , ! ϳ , , . .: Pocock J. G. A. Political Theory, History, and Myth: A Salute to John Gunnell // Annals of Scholarship. 1. 1980. . 23, 24. : , . , .

57 Collingwood R. Op. cit. (n. 49). . 282302.

58 Ibid. . 247 [ ], 246.

59 Schlzer. Op. cit. (. 22). 11. Vorbericht.

60 Ranke L. Op. cit. (. 25). . 297.

61 American Historical Association. Program of the One Hundred Seventh Annual Meeting, December 2730, 1992, Washington, D.C. Washington, DC, 1992. . 40.

62 Ankersmit F. R. Historiography and Postmodernism // History and Theory. XXVIII. 1989. . 137. (.: .: . ó // . . 9. (2002). . 12 (1617). . 105128).

63 Ibid. . 149. the pull of the frame notation . : Ankersmit F. R. The Reality Effect in the Writing of History; the Dynamics of Historiographical Topology. Amsterdam, 1989, . 2730, 32. notation .: Barthes R. The Reality Effect (. 1974) // The Rustle of Language. Trans. Richard Howard. New York, 1984. . 141142.

64 .: Derrida J. Diffrance, Margins of Philosophy (. 1971). Trans. Alan Bass. Chicago, 1982. . 127. [originary difference] , , , .

65 . Rescher N. The Strife of Systems: An Essay on the Grounds and Implications of Philosophical Diversity. Pittsburgh, 1985. . XI, 276277 passim.

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67 , Lyotard. Op. cit. (. 3). . : Megill A. What Does the Term Postmodern Mean? // Annals of Scholarship. VI. 1989. . 129151.

68 ., , , , : , , 쳅 , ࢓. Rodrigues R. J. Rethinking the Cultures of Disciplines // Chronicle of Higher Education. 29 April 1992. . B12.

69 ., : Traweek S. Border Crossings: Narrative Strategies in Science Studies and among Physicists in Tsukuba Science City, Japan // Andrew Pickering, ed., Science as Practice and Culture. Chicago, 1992. . 429465. (bachigai) , ; . .: Harding S. After the Neutrality Ideal: Science, Politics, and Strong Objectivity // Social Research. LIX. 1992. . 567587, 577585.

70 Braudel F. The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II (2/1966). Trans. Sin Reynolds. 2 vols. New York, 1973. II. . 1238.

71 , . , ? .: Krieger. The Autonomy of Intellectual History // Journal of the History of Ideas. XXXIV. 1973. . 499516. , , , ?

72 : Kellner H. Disorderly Conduct: Braudels Mediterranean Satire // Language and Historical Representation: Getting the Story Crooked. Madison, 1989. . 153187.

73 Braudel. Civilization and Capitalism: 15th18th Century (. 1979). Trans. Sin Reynolds. 3 vols. New York, 198184.

74 Veyne P. Writing History: Essay on Epistemology (. 1971). Trans. Mina MooreRinvolucri. Middletown, CT, 1984. . 26: ó . [ ] (, , , (op. cit., n. 8), VIII .). . , ; . : Furet. In the Workshop of History (. 1982). Trans. Jonathan Mandelbaum. Chicago, 1982. . 16.

75 .: Aydelotte W. O., Bogue A.G., Fogel R. W., eds. The Dimensions of Quantitative Research in History. Princeton, 1972. . 314. .: Hunt L., ed. The New Cultural History. Berkeley, 1989. . 112.

76 .: Novick. Op. cit. (. 6). . 591, . 20 : 1987 ., , ࢅ , , . , .

77 ˳, .: Lyotard. Op. cit. (n. 3). sect. 13, Postmodern Science as the Search for Instabilities. . 5360.

78 : 1 [1984 .] 쳳 㳳, 㳳 㳳, 쳳, 㳳. University of Chicago Magazine. VII. 1984. . 34; . : Novick. Op. cit. . 585 . 13. , . . : Noiriel G. Foucault and History: The Lessons of a Disillusion. Journal of Modern History. LXVI. 1994. . 567.

79 T. S. Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions ( , 1962; , Chicago, 2/1970). , Hawthorn G. Plausible Worlds: Possibility and Understanding in History and the Social Sciences. Cambridge, 1991.

80 , , , , , , . 5 1962 . 1991 . 768 774 . ( ̳ [Douglas Mitchell], 㳳 ). , , , .

81 Collingwood. Op. cit. (. 49). . 246. , , (.: Hawthorn. Op. cit., . 79), , .

82 .: White H. Metahistory: The Historical Imagination in NineteenthCentury Europe. Baltimore, 1973; Bann S. The Clothing of Clio: A Study of the Representation of History in NineteenthCentury Britain and France. Cambridge, 1984; White H. Op. cit. (. 40); Kellner. Op. cit. (. 72); Carrard P. Poetics of the New History: French Historical Discourse from Braudel to Chartier. Baltimore, I992; .., 볭: Ankersmit F. R. The Dilemma of Contemporary AngloSaxon Philosophy of History // History and Theory. XXV. 1986. . 127; Ankersmit F. R. The Use of Language in the Writing of History // Hywell Coleman, ed. Working with Language: A Multidisciplinary Consideration of Language Use in Work Contexts. Berlin, 1989. . 5781; Ankersmit F. R. Op. cit. (. 62 63).

83 ., .: Spence J.D. The Death of Woman Wang. New York, 1978. Davis N. Z. The Return of Martin Guerre. Cambridge, MA, 1983. Davis. Fiction in the Archives: Pardon Tales and their Tellers in SixteenthCentury France. Stanford, 1987. Rosenstone R.A. Mirror in the Shrine: American Encounters with Meiji Japan. Cambridge, MA, 1988. Farber D. Chicago 68. Chicago, 1988.

84 ³ (Kuhn. Op. cit., . 79). : ó, , , , (. 1).

85 Herodotus. The History. Trans. David Grene. Chicago, 1987. 1.32, . 4748; 1.91, . 7677; 1.5, . 35.

86 Ranke. Op. cit. (. 26). IV. . 412: Geschichte beginnt mit Chronik und endet mit Essay, das ist, in der Reflexion ber die historischen Ereignisse, die dort besonders Anklang findet. (, 1853 . .)